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2011在职硕士联考英语冲刺模拟附答案(四)

来源:在职研之家【中国在职研究生招生网】发布时间:2013-02-19

  Passage Three

  Ultralight (超轻型的) airplanes are a recent development in aviation that provide what aviation enthusiasts have long been seeking: born of the marriage of the hang glider and the go-kart (轻型单座赛车) engine around 1974, when John Moody mounted a 12-horsepower go-kart engine on his Icarus II hang glider.

  Today´s ultralights are not just hang gliders with engines; they are "air recreation vehicles." Modem ultralight planes use snowmobile engines that let them cruise at about 40 miles per hour, climb at about 400 feet per minute, and carry combined payloads of pilot and fuel up to about 200 pounds, which is about equal to an ultralight plane´s weight when empty. More than ten thousand ultralight planes were sold last year at prices ranging from $2,800 to $7,000. But the main reason for the increasing popularity of these aircraft is not that they are inexpensive, but that they are fun to fly.

  The modem ultralight plane would look very familiar to the earliest pioneers of aviation. Otto Lilienthal made more than 2,000 flights in Germany in the 1890´s in what were actually hang gliders. Octave Chanute designed and built many early hang gliders. Augustus Herring, Chanute´s assistant, used these gliders as models for a glider that he built for himself. On this glider, Herring installed a compressed-air motor and flew 267 feet in 1898. The Wright brothers´ flyer was the grandfather of today´s ultralight planes. The pilot sat right out in the open, just as in modem ultralights, and used controls that were much the same as those used in today´s machines. Though most ultralight planes are used for pleasure flying, some are also used for crop dusting, aerial photography and even military observation service. The likelihood is that further uses will be found for ultralight planes, but their greatest use will continue to be as air recreational vehicles.

  41. The author seems to feel that ultralight airplanes are _____________.

  A. a toy for the rich

  B. nothing but hang gliders

  C. a new development that meets the needs of aviation enthusiasts

  D. the most important development in aviation since the Wright brothers´ flyer

  42. The author compares John Moody´s use of a go-kart engine on a hang glider to ___________.

  A. a marriage B. the flight of Icarus

  C. cruising in a snowmobile D. soaring and gliding from a high altitude

  43. Which of the following statements is an opinion?

  A. Ultralight planes use snowmobile engines that let them cruise at about 40 miles per hour.

  B. John Moody used a 12-horsepower engine to power his Icarus II hang glider.

  C. The use of ultralight planes will increase in such areas as crop dusting and aerial photography.

  D. Otto Lilienthal made more than 2,000 flights in Germany in the 1890´s in what were actually hang gliders.

  44. The author finds great similarity between

  A. the weight of the hang glider and that of the ultralight airplane

  B. ultralight airplanes and military aircraft

  C. the inventiveness of John Moody and that of Octave Chanute

  D. the controls used in the Wright brothers´ flyer and those used in today´s ultralight air-planes

  45. The theme of this passage is about

  A. the flying snowmobile

  B. the history of recent aviation

  C. how the ultralight plane flies

  D. the ultralight plane — a recent development

  Passage Four

  Friction between America´s military and its civilian overseers is nothing new. America´s 220-year experiment in civilian control of the military is a recipe for friction. The nation´s history has seen a series of shifts in decision-making power among the White House, the civilian secretaries and the uniformed elite (精英). However, what may seem on the outside an unstable and special system of power sharing has, without a doubt, been a key to two centuries of military success.

  In the infighting dates to the revolution, George Washington waged a continual struggle not just for money, but to control the actual battle plan. The framers of the Constitution sought to clarify things by making the president the "commander in chief." Not since Washington wore his uniform and led the troops across the Alleghenies to quell(镇压)the Whiskey Rebellion has a sit-ting president taken command in the field. Yet the absolute authority of the president ensures his direct command. The president was boss, and everyone in uniform knew it.

  In the Civil War, Abraham Lincoln dealt directly with his generals, and Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton handled administrative details. Lincoln, inexperienced in military matters, initially deferred (顺从) to his generals. But when their caution proved disastrous, be issued his General War Order No. 1 — explicitly commanding a general advance of all Union forces. Some generals, George B. McClellan in particular, bridled at his hands-on direction. But in constitutional terms, Lincoln was in the right.

  His most important decision was to put Ulysses S. Grant in charge of the Union Army in 1864. Left to its own timetable, the military establishment would never have touched Grant. The relationship between the president and his general provides a textbook lesson in civilian control and power sharing. Grant was a general who would take the fight to the enemy, and not second-guess the president´s political decisions. Unlike McClellan, for example, Grant cooperated wholeheartedly in recruiting black soldiers. For his part, Lincoln did not meddle in operations and did not visit the headquarters in the field unless invited.

  The balance set up by Grant and Lincoln stayed more or less in place through World War I. Not until World War II did the pendulum finally swing back toward the White House. Franklin Roosevelt, who had been assistant Navy secretary, during World War I, was as well prepared to be commander in chief as any wartime president since George Washington.

  46. According to the author, the system of power sharing between the White House and the generals _____________.

  A. is unstable and strange

  B. is a guarantee for American military success

  C. has caused a series of quarrels

  D. undermines the bases of American military power

  47. The phrase "the uniformed elite" in paragraph one most probably refers to ___________.

  A. outstanding soldiers B. officers

  C. officials D. generals

  48. According to the passage, Washington ___________.

  A. struggled with the congress only for money

  B. lived up to the code of the constitution that the president was "the commander in chief"

  C. looked more like a general than a president

  D. did much more than he should as a president

  49. Why was the putting of Grant in charge of the Union Army an important decision?

  A. Because Lincoln was inexperienced in military affairs, he had to do so.

  B. Grant whole-heartedly believed in Lincoln, and their cooperation proved to be a none-such.

  C. All things considered, Grant was somewhat better than McClellan.

  D. The decision to put Grant in charge of the Union Army was not against the constitution.

  50. In the last paragraph, the author implies that __________.

  A. Roosevelt was better prepared to be a wartime president than Lincoln

  B. in the Second World War, the relationship between the White House and the generals was intense

  C. both Lincoln and Roosevelt were good wartime presidents, although their actual way of dealing things might be different

  D. George Washington was actually the best president

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