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2017年考研(一月联考)英语模拟试题及参考答案

来源:在职研之家【中国在职研究生招生网】发布时间:2016-11-11

  对于在职考生来说,不管报考哪一所院校,想获得在职研究生双证,很多人都需要参加英语考试。多做题是提高成绩的方法之一,以下是在职研究生招生信息网老师为大家整理的模拟试题,以供大家参考。  Section I Use of English

 

  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  When television first began to expand, very few of the people who had become famous as radio commentators were equally effective on television. Some of the 1 they experienced when they were trying to 2 themselves to the new medium were technical. When working 3 radio, for example, they had become 4 to seeing on 5 of the listener. This 6 of seeing for others means that the 7 has to be very good at talking. 8 all, he has to be able to 9 a continuous sequence of visual images which 10 meaning to the sounds which the listener hears. In the 11 of television, however, the commentator sees 12 with the viewer. His role, therefore, is 13 different. He is there to make 14 that the viewer does not 15 some points of interest, to help him 16 on particular things, and to 17 the images on the television screen. 18 his radio colleague, he must know the 19 of silence and how to use it at those moments 20 the pictures speaks for themselves.

  1. A. difficultiesB. successesC. sufferingsD. incidents

  2. A. turnB. adaptC. alterD. modify

  3. A. onB. atC. with D. behind

  4. A. experiencedB. determinedC. establishedD. accustomed

  5. A. accountB. sideC. pointD. behalf

  6. A. efficiencyB. technologyC. artD. performance

  7. A. commentatorB. TV viewerC. speakerD. author

  8. A. OfB. ForC. AboveD. In

  9. A. inspire B. createC. causeD. perceive

  10. A. addB. applyC. affectD. reflect

  11. A. occasionB. eventC. factD. case

  12. A. somethingB. nothingC. everythingD. anything

  13. A. equallyB. completelyC. initiallyD. hardly

  14. A. definiteB. possibleC. sureD. clear

  15. A. loseB. depriveC. relieveD. miss

  16. A. focusB. attendC. followD. insist

  17. A. exhibitB. demonstrateC. exposeD. interpret

  18. A. LikeB. UnlikeC. AsD. For

  19. A. purposeB. goalC. valueD. intention

  20. A. ifB. when C. whichD. as

  Section II Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:

  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A], [B], [C] or [D]. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

  Text 1

  It’s plain common sense—the more happiness you feel, the less unhappiness you experience. It’s plain common sense, but it’s not true. Recent research reveals that happiness and unhappiness are not really two sides of the same emotion. They are two distinct feelings that, coexisting, rise and fall independently.

  People might think that the higher a person’s level of unhappiness, the lower their level of happiness and vice versa. But when researchers measure people’s average levels of happiness and unhappiness, they often find little relationship between the two.

  The recognition that feelings of happiness and unhappiness can co-exist much like love and hate in a close relationship may offer valuable clues on how to lead a happier life. It suggests, for example, that changing or avoiding things that make you miserable may well make you less miserable, but probably won’t make you any happier. That advice is backed up by an extraordinary series of studies which indicate that a genetic predisposition for unhappiness may run in certain families. On the other hand, researchers have found happiness doesn’t appear to be anyone’s heritage. The capacity for joy is a talent you develop largely for yourself.

  Psychologists have settled on a working definition of the feeling—happiness is a sense of subjective well-being. They have also begun to find out who’s happy, who isn’t and why. To date, the research hasn’t found a simple formula for a happy life, but it has discovered some of the actions and attitudes that seem to bring people closer to that most desired of feelings.

  Why is unhappiness less influenced by environment? When we are happy, we are more responsive to people and keep up connections better than when we are feeling sad. This doesn’t mean, however, that some people are born to be sad and that’s that. Genes may predispose one to unhappiness, but disposition can be influenced by personal choice. You can increase your happiness through your own actions.

  21. According to the text, it is true that

  [A] unhappiness is more inherited than affected by environment.

  [B] happiness and unhappiness are mutually conditional.

  [C] unhappiness is subject to external more than internal factors.

  [D] happiness is an uncontrollable subjective feeling.

  22. The author argues that one can achieve happiness by

  [A] maintaining it at an average level.

  [B] escaping miserable occurrences in life.

  [C] pursuing it with one’s painstaking effort.

  [D] realizing its coexistence with unhappiness.

  23. The phrase “To date” (Para. 4) can be best replaced by

  [A] As a result.

  [B] In addition.

  [C] At present.

  [D] Until now.

  24. What do you think the author believes about happiness and unhappiness?

  [A] One feels unhappy owing to his miserable origin.

  [B] They are independent but existing concurrently

  [C] One feels happy by participating in more activities.

  [D] They are actions and attitudes taken by human beings.

  25. The sentence “That’s that” (Para. 5) probably means: Some people are born to be sad

  [A] and the situation cannot be altered.

  [B] and happiness remains inaccessible.

  [C] but they don’t think much about it.

  [D] but they remain unconscious of it.

  Text 2

  Over the pastcentury, all kinds of unfairness and discrimination have been condemned or madeillegal. But one insidious form continues to thrive: alphabetism. This, forthose as yet unaware of such a disadvantage, refers to discrimination againstthose whose surnames begin with a letter in the lower half of the alphabet。

  It has long been known that a taxi firm called AAAA cars has a bigadvantage over Zodiac cars when customers thumb through their phonedirectories. Less well known is the advantage that Adam Abbott has in life overZo? Zysman. English names are fairly evenly spread between the halves of thealphabet. Yet a suspiciously large number of top people have surnames beginningwith letters between A and K。

  Thus the American president and vice-president have surnamesstarting with B and C respectively; and 26 of George Bush’spredecessors (including his father) had surnames in the first half of thealphabet against just 16 in the second half. Even more striking, six of theseven heads of government of the G7 rich countries are alphabeticallyadvantaged (Berlusconi, Blair, Bush, Chirac, Chrétien and Koizumi).The world’s three top central bankers (Greenspan, Duisenberg and Hayami) areall close to the top of the alphabet, even if one of them really uses Japanesecharacters. As are the world’s five richest men (Gates, Buffett, Allen, Ellison and Albrecht)。

  Can this merely be coincidence? One theory, dreamt up in all thespare time enjoyed by the alphabetically disadvantaged, is that the rot sets inearly. At the start of the first year in infant school, teachers seat pupilsalphabetically from the front, to make it easier to remember their names. Soshort-sighted Zysman junior gets stuck in the back row, and is rarely asked theimproving questions posed by those insensitive teachers. At the time thealphabetically disadvantaged may think they have had a lucky escape. Yet theresult may be worse qualifications, because they get less individual attention,as well as less confidence in speaking publicly。

  The humiliation continues. At university graduation ceremonies, theABCs proudly get their awards first; by the time they reach the Zysmans mostpeople are literally having a ZZZ. Shortlists for job interviews, electionballot papers, lists of conference speakers and attendees: all tend to be drawnup alphabetically, and their recipients lose interest as they plough throughthem。

  26. What does the author intend to illustrate with AAAA cars andZodiac cars?

  [A] A kind of overlooked inequality。

  [B] A type of conspicuous bias。

  [C] A type of personal prejudice。

  [D] A kind of brand discrimination。

  27. What can we infer from the first three paragraphs?

  [A] In both East and West, names are essential to success.

  [B] The alphabet is to blame for the failure of Zo? Zysman.

  [C] Customers often pay a lot of attention to companies’ names。

  [D] Some form of discrimination is too subtle to recognize。

  28. The 4th paragraph suggests that

  [A] questions are often put to the more intelligent students。

  [B] alphabetically disadvantaged students often escape form class.

  [C] teachers should pay attention to all of their students.

  [D] students should be seated according to their eyesight。

  29. What does the author mean by “most people areliterally having a ZZZ” (Lines 2-3, Paragraph 5)?

  [A] They are getting impatient。

  [B] They are noisily dozing off。

  [C] They are feeling humiliated。

  [D] They are busy with word puzzles。

  30. Which of the following is true according to the text?

  [A] People with surnames beginning with N to Z are oftenill-treated。

  [B] VIPs in the Western world gain a great deal from alphabetism。

  [C] The campaign to eliminate alphabetism still has a long way togo。

  [D] Putting things alphabetically may lead to unintentional bias。

  Text 3

  To paraphrase18th-century statesman Edmund Burke,“all that is neededfor the triumph of a misguided cause is that good people do nothing。”One suchcause now seeks to end biomedical research because of the theory that animalshave rights ruling out their use in research. Scientists need to respondforcefully to animal rights advocates, whose arguments are confusing the publicand thereby threatening advances in health knowledge and care. Leaders of theanimal rights movement target biomedical research because it depends on publicfunding, and few people understand the process of health care research. Hearingallegations of cruelty to animals in research settings, many are perplexed thatanyone would deliberately harm an animal。

  For example, a grandmotherly woman staffing an animal rights boothat a recent street fair was distributing a brochure that encouraged readers notto use anything that comes from or is animals—no meat , no fur, nomedicines, Asked if she opposed immunizations, she wanted to know if vaccinescome from animal research. When assured that they do, she replied, “Then I wouldhave to say yes。” Asked what will happen when epidemics return, she said, “ Don’t worry,scientists will find some way of using computers。” Such well-meaningpeople just don't understand。

  Scientists must communicate their message to the public in acompassionate, understandable way—in human terms, not in the language of molecular biology. We need tomake clear the connection between animal research and a grandmother's hipreplacement, a father's bypass operation, a baby's vaccinations, and even apet's shots. To those who are unaware that animal research was needed toproduce these treatments, as well as new treatments and vaccines, animalresearch seems wasteful at best and cruel at worst。

  Much can be done. Scientists could“adopt”middleschool classes and present their own research. They should be quick to respondto letters to the editor, lest animal rights misinformation go unchallenged andacquire a deceptive appearance of truth. Research institutions could be openedto tours, to show that laboratory animals receive humane care. Finally, becausethe ultimate stakeholders are patients, the health research community shouldactively recruit to its cause not only well-known personalities such as StephenCooper, who has made courageous statements about the value of animal research,but all who receive medical treatment. If good people do nothing there is areal possibility that an uninformed citizenry will extinguish the preciousembers of medical progress。

  31. The author begins his article with Edmund Burke's words to

  [A] call on scientists to take some actions。

  [B] criticize the misguided cause of animal rights。

  [C] warn of the doom of biomedical research。

  [D] show the triumph of the animal rights movement。

  32. Misled people tend to think that using an animal in research is

  [A] cruel but natural。

  [B] inhuman and unacceptable。

  [C] inevitable but vicious。

  [D] pointless and wasteful。

  33. The example of the grandmotherly woman is used to show thepublic’s

  [A] discontent with animal research。

  [B] ignorance about medical science。

  [C] indifference to epidemics。

  [D] anxiety about animal rights。

  34. The author believes that, in face of the challenge from animalrights advocates, scientists should

  [A] communicate more with the public。

  [B] employ hi-tech means in research。

  [C] feel no shame for their cause。

  [D] strive to develop new cures。

  35. From the text we learn that Stephen Cooper is

  [A] a well-known humanist。

  [B] a medical practitioner。

  [C] an enthusiast in animal rights。

  [D] a supporter of animal research。

  Text 4

  I am a neuroscientist.I make a living by studying how the brain works.Although neuroscience has taken huge strides forward in the past decade,it is a long way from being able to address the problems dealt with by psychotherapy.3) Neuroscience cannot yet explain how we feel,and it is a long way from being able to prescribe what a miserable person must do to feel better.So,as a neuroscientist,I feel I should have a conclusion about the alternative approach.

  The first question I must answer is:“What do psychotherapies have to offer?”First,let us deal with the scientific angle.The best way to start is by assessing a claim that has cropped up several times over the year.It was first made of psychoanalysis,but it has been extended to other psychotherapies.It is the claim that psychoanalysis is the successor to religion,that it gives a scientific,rather than a superstitious,answer to the question of how best to lead a happy,fulfilled life.

  I would say this claim is at best half right.Psychoanalysis may indeed answer the question of how best to lead a happy life,but it has a lot more in common with religion than it has with science.In fact,psychoanalysis is not the successor to religion,it is just another religion.

  This assessment is based on the way religions and sciences deal with fundamental truths.In religions,truths are laid down by God and revealed to the prophets who,in their turn,pass them on to the faithful.They are sacred mysteries that cannot be questioned.In science,on the other hand,truths are nothing if not questionable.The laws of science are deduced from the results of experiments and can be used to predict new experimental results.If new results go against the prediction,they show the law to be false.A new experimental result,or a new theory for deriving predictions from the results,can change the accepted truths.If a scientific statement cannot,in principle,be proved wrong then it tells us nothing.

  Psychoanalysis suffers from just this problem.4)It is a maxim that our psychological problems are rooted in past conflicts,and that the repressed memories of these conflicts emerge from the unconscious in coded forms that can be interpreted by the analyst.But the codes are so obscure and so flexible that they defy rational explanation.There is no way the maxims could be disproved.They may not be sacred,but they are definitely mysteries.

  Many other therapies are based on untestable theories.Of course,that doesn‘t necessarily prevent them from working.There is no doubt thousands of people feel that psychoanalysis has helped them to lead fuller and happier lives.But the number of satisfied customers is no guide to scientific validity;if it were,religion would come out way ahead.

  36. The author considers his role as a neuroscientist____.

  [A]irrelevant to that of a psychoanalyst

  [B]different from that of a psychoanalyst

  [C]of the same importance as that of a psychotherapeutist

  [D]purely imaginary and impractical

  37. According to the author,psychoanalysis is another religion in that____.

  [A]it does nothing towards revealing fundamental truth

  [B]its conclusions are seldom capable of being tested

  [C]it has too many prophets and blind believers

  [D]it takes over many doctrines from religious beliefs

  38. By saying that“Psychoanalysis suffers from just this problem”(Para.5)the author means that____.

  [A]psychoanalysis deals with problems or conflicts inside the unconscious

  [B]the assertions in psychoanalysis cannot be disproved

  [C]psychoanalysis attaches no importance to doing experiments

  [D]psychoanalysts can not explain psychological problems to patients

  39. Which of the following is a science according to the author?

  [A]Neuroscience.

  [B]Psychoanalysis.

  [C]Psychotherapy.

  [D]None of the above.

  40. The main purpose of the passage is____.

  [A]to refute the practical value of psychoanalysis

  [B]to propose neuroscience as an alternative to psychoanalysis

  [C]to compare the theories of psychoanalysis with religious doctrines

  [D]to explain why psychoanalysis is not a science

  Part B

  Directions:

  The following paragraph are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs int0 a coherent text by choosing from the list A-G to filling them int0 the numbered boxes. Paragraphs E and G have been correctly placed. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  Long before Man lived on the Earth, there were fishes, reptiles,birds, insects, and some mammals. Although some oftheseanimals were ancestors of kinds living today, others are now extinct, that is,they have no descendants alive now. 41. Very occasionally the rocks showimpression of skin, so that, apart from color, we can build up a reasonablyaccurate picture of an animal that died millions of years ago. The kind of rockin which the remains are found tells us much about the nature of the originalland, often of the plants that grew on it, and even of its climate.

  42. . Nearly all of the fossils that we know were preserved in rocksformed by water action, and most of these are of animals that lived in or nearwater. Thus it follows that there must be many kinds of mammals, birds, andinsects, of which we know nothing.

  43. . There were also crab-like creatures, whose bodies were coveredwith a horny substance. The body segments each had two pairs of legs, one pairfor walking on the sandy bottom, the other for swimming. The head was a kind ofshield with a pair of compound eyes, often with thousands of lenses. They wereusually an inch or two long but some were 2 feet.

  44. . Of these, the ammonites are very interesting and important.They have a shell composed of many chambers, each representing a temporary homeof the animal. As the young grew larger it grew a new chamber and sealed offthe previous one. Thousands of these can be seen in the rocks on the DorsetCoast.

  45. .About 75 million years ago the Age of Reptiles was over andmost of the groups died out. The mammals quickly developed, and we can tracethe evolution of many familiar animals such as the elephant and horse. Many ofthe later mammals, though now extinct, were known to primitive man and werefeatured by him in cave paintings and on bone carvings.

  [A] The shell gush have a long history in the rock and many differentkinds are known.

  [B] Nevertheless, we know a great deal about many of them because theirbones and shells have been preserved in the rocks as fossils. From them we cantell their size and shape, how they walked, the kind of food they ate.

  [C] The first animals with true backbones were the fishes, first knownin the rocks of 375 million years ago. About 300 million years ago theamphibians, the animals able to live both on land and in water, appeared. Theywere giant, sometimes 8 feet long, and many of them lived in the swampy poolsin which our coal seam, or layer, or formed. The amphibians gave rise to thereptiles and for nearly 150 million years these were the principal forms oflife on land, in the sea, and in the air.

  [D] The best index fossils tend to be marine creatures. These animalsevolved rapidly and spread over large areas of the world.

  [E] The earliest animals whose remains have been found were all verysimple kinds and lived in the sea. Later forms are more complex, and amongthese are the sealilies, relations of the starfishes, which had long armsand were attached by a long stalk to the sea bed, or to rocks.

  [F] When an animal dies the body, its bones, or shell, may often becarried away by streams into lakes or the sea and there get covered up by mud.If the animal lived in the sea its body would probably sink and be covered withmud. More and more mud would fall upon it until the bones or shell becomeembedded and preserved.

  [G] Many factors can influence how fossils are preserved in rocks.Remains of an organism may be replaced by minerals, dissolved by an acidicsolution to leave only their impression, or simply reduced to a more stableform.

  Part C

  Directions:

  Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments int0 Chinese. Your translation should be written carefully on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

  There is no question that science-fiction writers have become more ambitious, stylistically and thematically, in recent years.(46) But this may have less to do with the luring call of academic surroundings than with changing market conditions—a factor that academic critics rarely take into account. Robert Silverberg, a former president of The Science Fiction Writers of America, is one of the most prolific professionals in a field dominated by people who actually write for a living. (Unlike mystery or Western writers, most science-fiction writers cannot expect to cash in on fat movie sales or TV tie-ins.) (47) Still in his late thirties, Silverberg has published more than a hundred books, and he is disarmingly frank about the relationship between the quality of genuine prose and the quality of available outlet. By his own account, he was “an annoyingly verbal young man” from Brooklyn who picked up his first science-fiction book at the age of ten, started writing seriously at the age of thirteen, and at seventeen nearly gave up in despair over his inability to break into the pulp magazines. (48) At his parents’ urging, he enrolled in Columbia University, so that, if worst came to worst, he could always go to the School of Journalism and “get a nice steady job somewhere”. During his sophomore year, he sold his first science-fiction story to a Scottish magazine named Nebula. By the end of his junior year, he had sold a novel and twenty more stories. (49) By the end of his senior year, he was earning two hundred dollars a week writing science fiction, and his parents were reconciled to his pursuit of the literary life. “I became very cynical very quickly,” he says. First I couldn’t sell anything, then I could sell everything. The market played to my worst characteristics. An editor of a schlock magazine would call up to tell me he had a ten-thousand-word hole to fill in his next issue. I’d fill it overnight for a hundred and fifty dollars. I found that rewriting made no difference. (50) I knew I could not possibly write the kinds of things I admired as a reader—Joyce, Kafka, Mann—so I detached myself from my work. I was a phenomenon among my friends in college, a published, selling author. But they always asked, “When are you going to do something serious?” —meaning something that wasn’t science fiction—and I kept telling them, “ When I’m financially secure.”

  Section Ⅲ Writing

  Part A

  51. Directions:

  Write an email to the editor of your local newspaper, stating your point of view on reading extensively.

  Your should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2

  Do not sign your own name at the end of the leter. User “LI MING” instead.

  Part B

  52. Directions:

  Write an essay of 160——200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should

  1) describe the drawing briefly,

  2) explain it‘s intended meaning, and

  3) give your comments.

  Your should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (20 points)

  

\

 

  参考答案:

  完型

  1. 【答案】A. difficulties

  【解析】本题测试词义搭配。本句译文:当他们试图适应这种新的媒体时他们遇到的困难是技术性的。

  2. 【答案】 B. adapt

  【解析】本题测试结构型词义搭配。adapt oneself to sth. 使……适应于:When you go to a foreign country, you should adapt yourself to new manners and customs.

  turn to 求助于 :You can turn to him for help when you are in trouble. (你有困难时可以求助于他)

  alter (部分的)改变,修改:Have you altered your mind? (你是否已改变主意?)

  modify (稍稍)修改,变更:You have to modify the plan if necessary. 此外,modify 还可以作“修饰”解,如:Adverbs modify verbs. (副词修饰动词。)

  3.【答案】A. on

  【解析】本题测试惯用搭配。on radio 用无线电,通过广播(强调行为手段):The concert is broadcast on radio. on radio 在涵义上相当于 by radio, 例如,We can listen to music broadcast by radio. 此外,还有on the radio 意为:“通过广播,无线电广播中”,例如:1) I listen to the music on the radio. 2) There was good music on the radio last night.

  at, with, behind 与 radio 不能构成惯用搭配,而且从上下文意思上看也不符合题意。

  4. 【答案】D. accustomed

  【解析】本题测试词义搭配。be(或 become ,get ) accustomed to sth. or to doing sth.习惯于:You will soon get accustomed to the climate here. (你会很快习惯这里的气候的。)从上下文的逻辑意思和语法结构上看,experienced, determined, established 均不切题。

  5.【答案】D. behalf

  【解析】本题测试惯用搭配。on behalf of 代表,为了。 on account of 由于;on the side of 在…. 一边;be on the point of doing sth. 刚要做某事。

  6. 【答案】C. art

  【解析】本题测试词义搭配。art 技能,本领:the art of seeing for others 意为:“这种替别人看实况的技能”。technology 技术,performance 演出,节目,执行,完成;efficiency 效率,均不符合题意。

  7.【答案】A. commentator

  【解析】本题测试逻辑型词义搭配。

  本句译为:这种替别人看实况的技能意味着,电视解说员必须有高超的谈话艺术。

  8.【答案】C.Above

  【解析】本题测试惯用搭配。above all (= most important) 最重要的。 in all 总共:There are thirty students in all in the class. for all 是复合介词,意为“尽管”。

  9.【答案】B.create

  【解析】本题测试词义搭配。create 创立,创建:1)They are struggling to create a new social order. 2) That would create a wrong impression. (那样会造成错误的印象) cause 引起;inspire 鼓舞;perceive 认识到,察觉到。

  本句译文:最要的是他必须善于把看到的情景变成一个个连续的画面,用声音把实况介绍给观众。

  10.【答案】A.Add

  【解析】本题测试词义搭配。add ….to 把…… 加到….. which add meaning to the sounds which the listener hears 意为“这些图像使得观众听到的声音具

  有一定的意义”,即“听众听到了解说员用声音介绍的实况内容”。

  11.【答案】D.case

  【解析】本题测试惯用搭配。in the case of 就……而言。注意 in the case of 和 in case of 在涵义和用法上的区别:in case of 万一发生…..。 in the event of(=in case of )如果发生。occasion 不能与in 搭配,但是可以与on 搭配,如:on the occasion of 在…..场合,值…..之际:He gave me a present on the occasion of my birthday.

  12. 【答案】C. everything

  【解析】本题测试逻辑搭配。

  本句译为:然而,就电视而言 ,解说员与电视观众都能看到全部图像。

  13.【答案】B. completely

  【解析】本题测试词义搭配。completely different 完全不同。 equally, hardly, initially (起初,最初)均不符合题意。

  14.【答案】C. sure

  【解析】本题测试词义搭配。make sure 查明,弄确实;后可接 of 或 about, 也可接从句,例如:1)Please make sure of the date of the next meeting.(请确定下次会议的时间。) 2)Please make sure that the house is locked properly.(一定要把房门锁好。)

  15.【答案】D.miss

  【解析】本题测试词义搭配。miss vt. 错过。

  本句译为:电视解说员要确保电视观众不错过一些精彩场面,他要提醒电视观众注意一些特殊的事情并向观众讲解电视荧幕上的图像。

  16.【答案】A. focus

  【解析】本题测试词义搭配。focus on 注视,集中。insist on 坚持(某种意见或看法);attend on 照顾,伺候:Two nurses attended on the patient. follow vt.后面不能接 on ,意为“跟随”。

  17.【答案】D.interpret

  【解析】本题测试词义搭配。interpret 解释,说明:How can I interpret this behavior? exhibit 展览,展示;demonstrate vt. 演示,显示,表演;expose vt. 暴露。

  18.【答案】B. unlike

  【解析】本题测试词义型结构搭配。unlike 不像……, 和…….不同。从上下文逻辑意思来看,本句是讲电视实况解说员与无线电实况解说员转播方式不同,他按照电视图像进行讲解。可见,只能选择 unlike.

  19. 【答案】C. value

  【解析】本题测试词义搭配。value 价值,有用性。电视实况解说员在图像很清楚时,就不必再作解释。这时“沉默”就起了微妙的作用,让观众自己去欣赏,体会和评论。可见,此处只能选 value. purpose (目的),goal(目标)和intention(意图,意向)均不符合题意。

  20.【答案】B. when

  【解析】本题测试逻辑搭配。句中when 引导定语从句,修饰先行词 moments, 意为“在图像本身一目了然的时候”。

  本句译为:他和无线电解说员情况不同,他必须知道沉默的作用,在电视图像一目了然的时候如何利用这种作用。

  Text 1

  一、文章大意与结构

  此文主要讨论幸福感与不幸福感的关系。第一、二段指出,幸福感与不幸福感并不是同一情感的两个方面, 而是两种共存的不同感受, 两者之间没有多少关系。第三至五段提到,不幸福感的遗传禀性可能存在于某些家庭,而幸福感则主要靠后天培养。幸福感是一种主观感受,天生感到不幸福的人也可通过自己的努力增加幸福感。

  此文结构上的显著特点是各段中均使用转折词“but”或“however”,前半段的叙述作为铺垫,后半段以转折词引出作者的观点。

  二、试题解析

  21. [A]判断题。此文第三段第三、四句说,研究表明,不幸福感的遗传禀性可能存在于某些家庭。幸福感似乎与遗传无关。由此可以断定,A“不幸福感是遗传的,而不是受环境影响的”正确。

  B“幸福与不幸福互为条件”,与第一段末句相悖;C“不幸受外部因素而不是内部因素影响”,与A项相反;D“幸福是一种不可控的主观感受”错误,幸福并非“uncontrollable”,它可以培养(三段末句)。

  22. [C]细节题。 题干中的关键词是“achieve happiness by…”。文中有两处对此进行了回答:第三段末句“获得快乐的能力主要是自己培养的”,第五段末句“你可以通过自己的行动增加幸福”。因此C“不懈努力地追求它”符合文意。

  A“保持一般的幸福程度”,B“逃避生活中恼人的事情”,D“认识到它与不幸福共存”,均不正确。

  23. [D]词义题。词语意义的判断必依据上下文:其前一句“他们也开始发现谁幸福谁不幸福及其原因”,其后一句“研究尚未找到幸福生活的简单定律,但业已发现某些行动和态度似乎会更使人们接近最渴望的那种感受”, 且句中谓语皆为现在完成时。故D“迄今为止”在意义和结构上皆恰当。

  A“结果”,B“此外”,C“目前”,均不可取。

  24. [B] 判断题。题干中的关键词是作者的believes(看法)。依据第一段末句“他们是两种不同的情感, 二者共存,各自增减”判断, B“他们各自独立又同时存在”符合作者看法。

  A“人们因为出身贫寒而感到不幸福”,不合文意;C“人们参加更多的活动可感到幸福”是对actions的曲解;D“它们是人类采取的行动和态度”, 对第四段末句的曲解,行为和态度本身并非幸福或不幸福。

  25. [A] 句意题。“and that’s that”是对前半句的进一步肯定,意为“就是这样;就是这么回事”。据此,只有A“情况无法改变”符合句意。

  B“幸福依然难以获得”,C“但他们对此考虑不多”,D“但他们对此未意识到”。

  TEXT 2

  26. What does the author intend to illustrate with AAAA cars andZodiac cars?

  作者用“AAAA汽车”和“Zodiac汽车”来例证什么?

  [A] A kind of overlooked inequality. 某种被忽视的不平等。

  [B] A type of conspicuous bias. 某种显而易见的偏见。

  [C] A type of personal prejudice. 某种个人的偏见。

  [D] A kind of brand discrimination. 某种品牌上的歧视。

  【答案】 A

  【考点】 判断题。

  【分析】 本题考查作者的写作意图,即作者用这两个例子试图来证明什么问题。通常人们只有在需要证明某个方面的问题时才会引用例子,那么作者用这两个例子究竟是为了说明什么问题呢?其实考生在读完第一段之后就应该比较清楚作者的意图了,即他正在试图证明按字母排序这一隐蔽的不公平现象。[B]“某种显而易见的偏见”错在“显而易见”。[C]“某种个人的偏见”错在“个人”。[D]“某种品牌上的歧视”是故意在偷换概念,举这两个例子不是为了说明哪一个品牌好,而是为了证明字母顺序主义的存在与危害。

  27. What can we infer from the first three paragraphs?

  从文章前三段,我们可以推断出什么?

  [A] In both East and West, names are essential to success。

  在东方和西方,名字对于成功来说都是至关重要的。

  [B] The alphabet is to blame for the failure of Zo? Zysman.

  Zo.Zysman的失败应该归咎于字母表。

  [C] Customers often pay a lot of attention to companies’ names。

  顾客通常很注重公司的名字。。

  [D] Some form of discrimination is too subtle to recognize。

  某种歧视过于微妙以至于难以被人发现。

  【答案】 D

  【考点】 文章结构与举例说明题。

  【分析】 考生只有通读作者要求的这三段,才能够得出正确结论。第一段提出“字母顺序主义”这一说法,第二段举例说明这种现象在生活中的表现,第三段举例说明“字母顺序主义”在名人身上的体现。在上题中说过,举例都是为了证明某个观点,也就是说,第二和第三段都是为了证明第一段提出的论点。从几个关键的单词、词组“insidious”,“unaware”以及“less well known”我们可以推断出正确选项[D]“某种歧视过于微妙以至于难以被人发现。”。选项[A]显得过于绝对。将某一个人或者某一类人的失败全部归咎于字母是有失偏颇的,文章中只是说,由于名字靠后,有一些学生可能容易被老师忽视,从而导致学习的失败,但是这不能说明都是字母的责任,而且这一点已经不在前三段了。选项[C]这一说法也是以偏概全,文中只是说顾客容易受到字母排序的影响从而注意到排名靠前的出租车公司而已。

  28. The 4th paragraph suggests that 第四段暗示

  [A] questions are often put to the more intelligent students。

  更加聪明的学生经常被提问。

  [B] alphabetically disadvantaged students often escape form class。

  姓氏在字母排序中处于劣势的学生经常逃课。

  [C] teachers should pay attention to all of their students。

  老师应该关注所有的学生。

  [D] students should be seated according to their eyesight。

  学生应该按照视力的好坏来排座位。

  【答案】 C

  【考点】 推断题。

  【分析】 文章中没有直接给出一个答案,考生必须自己通过透彻的理解原文才能得出结论。第四段认为“这不是巧合,按字母表顺序排名靠后而吃亏的人在业余时间凭空想出一种理论认为这种倒霉事儿很早就开始了。在幼儿学校第一年之始,老师为了较为容易记住学生的名字,就按字母表顺序由前往后给学生排座位。因此近视的小Zysman就被插在了后排,这样一来,粗心的教师提出的有助于提高的问题就很少会问到他。这时,按字母表顺序排名靠后的学生还认为他们能逃避老师的问题很幸运。然而,结果可能就是成绩欠佳,因为这种学生得到的个人关注较少,同时当众讲话时的信心也不足”。至此,作者再一次试图论证其论点,即“按照字母排序是隐蔽的不平等”。而且这还导致了学生不能够得到公平的教育机会,也就是在说,老师们该关注关注那些按字母排序吃亏的人了,因此选项[C]比较符合文意。[D]是一种貌似正确实际上以偏概全的说法,没有达到作者想要表达的高度,是一种比较肤浅的表象的看法,有些考生没有仔细精读原文,就可能受其影响。

  29. What does the author mean by “most people areliterally having a ZZZ”(Lines 2-3, Paragraph 5)?

  “most people are literally having a ZZZ”(第五段第二、三行)是什么意思?

  [A] They are getting impatient. 他们急不可耐。

  [B] They are noisily dozing off. 他们鼾声大作。

  [C] They are feeling humiliated. 他们感觉受到了屈辱。

  [D] They are busy with word puzzles. 他们忙于拼字游戏。。

  【答案】 B

  【考点】 推断题。

  【分析】 看第五段“这种羞辱继续着。在大学的毕业典礼上,姓名首字母是A、B、C的学生骄傲地首先领到奖品;等轮到Zysman们领奖品的时候,大多数人差不多都在‘ZZZ’了”。在西方漫画中,“ZZZ”就是表示打鼾,这是考查考生平日的英语学习中是否对西方文化背景知识给予足够的关注。

  30. Which of the following is true according to the text?

  根据本文,以下哪一种说法是正确的?

  [A] People with surnames beginning with N to Z are often ill-treated。

  姓氏字母为N到Z的人经常受到不公平的对待。

  [B] VIPs in the Western world gain a great deal from alphabetism。

  西方世界的重要人士从字母顺序主义中获益颇丰。

  [C] The campaign to eliminate alphabetism still has a long way to go。

  消除字母顺序主义的运动仍然任重而道远。

  [D] Putting things alphabetically may lead to unintentional bias。

  凡是按照字母排序把事物排列的做法可能会导致无意识的偏见。

  【答案】 D

  【考点】 事实细节题。

  【分析】 本题考查的是事实细节,而且选项跨度很大,只有在通篇阅读本文并且取得深刻认识之后,我们才有可能完全答对本道题目。选项[A]这一说法的问题出在作者提到“A-K”,而不是到“M”,而且“ill-treated”这个单词有点过了,因为字母顺序主义导致的不公平与主观的虐待还是有很大区别的。选项[B]这一说法的问题出在程度的限定上。文章中提到许多杰出人士在字母排序中靠前,但是这只能够说这些人相比字母靠后的人可能更容易成功,而且西方世界的重要人士这个主语太大了,它也包括字母靠后的那些重要人士,而且用“gain a great deal”都显得过于夸张。[C]这个说法与作者的意图不同,作者只是在论证字母顺序主义这样一种不平等现象,但是并没有提出要消除字母顺序主义。只有选项[D]还比较合理,来自于首段的第二、三句。

  难句解析:

  1. This, for those as yet unaware of such a disadvantage, refers todiscrimination against those whose surnames begin with a letter in the lowerhalf of the alphabet。

  【结构分析】该句子的主句是“this refers to discrimination”。主语“this”和谓语“refersto”之间插入了介宾短语“for those”作状语,“those”后跟着形容词短语“unaware of…”作其定语,宾语“discrimination”后跟介宾短语“against those…”作定语,“those”后又有“whose”引导的定语从句来修饰。

  2. Thus the American president and vice-president have surnamesstarting with B and C respectively; and 26 of George Bush’spredecessors (including his father) had surnames in the first half of thealphabet against just 16 in the second half。

  【结构分析】“and”将本句分为两个并列分句,第一个分句即“American president and vice-president have surnames”,第二个分句是“26of…had surnames”。第一个分句的宾语“surnames”后是现在分词结构“starting with”作定语;第二个分句宾语紧跟的介词结构“in the first half of the alphabet”作定语。

  全文翻译:

  在过去的一个世纪里各种各样的不公和歧视遭到了谴责或定为非法。但是有一种隐蔽的不公和歧视形式还在盛行:字母顺序主义。对于尚未意识到其危害的人来说,它指的是针对那些姓氏起始字母位于字母表后半部的人的歧视。

  人们早已知道在客户翻阅电话簿时,名叫AAAA的出租汽车公司要比Zodiac出租汽车公司有很大的优越性。至于在生活方面,一个名叫Adam Abbott的人较之一个名为Zo? Zysman的人占了多大的优势就不那么为人所知了。英语的姓名虽然在字母表的前后两部分的分布相当平均,但杰出人物的姓名的首字母在A与K之间的却多得可疑。

  如此这般,美国的总统和副总统的姓氏分别是以B和C字母起头。乔治·布什的前任有二十六位(包括其父)的姓氏均在字母表的前半部分,而姓氏在字母表后半部的却仅有十六位。更加令人瞩目的是七国首脑中有六位在其姓氏按字母表顺序排名时靠前(Berlusconi,Blair,Bush,Chirac,Chrétien,Koizumi)。世界三大中央银行家(Greenspan,Duisenberg,Hayami)的姓氏首字母全都接近字母表的上端,三人之中有一人名字尽管用的是日文,也是如此。世界上最富有的前五位情况也是如此(Gates,Buffett,Allen,Ellison,Albrecht)。

  这仅仅是巧合吗?按字母表顺序排名靠后而吃亏的人在业余时间凭空想出一种理论,认为这种倒霉事儿很早就开始了。在幼儿学校第一年之始,老师为了较为容易记住学生的名字,就按字母表顺序由前往后给学生排座位。因此近视的小Zysman就被插在了后排,这样一来,粗心的教师提出的有助于提高学生能力的问题就很少会问到他。这时,按字母表顺序排名靠后的学生还认为他们能逃避老师的问题很幸运。然而,结果可能就是成绩欠佳,因为这种学生得到的个人关注较少,同时当众讲话时的信心也不足。

  这种耻辱还在继续着。在大学的毕业典礼上,姓名首字母是A、B、C的学生骄傲的首先领到奖品;等轮到Zysman们领奖品的时候,大多数人简直都在鼾声大作了。求职面试、选举投票、会议发言或参加会议等诸多名单,也是按字母表顺序排序,当人们费劲地向下查看时,兴趣随之索然。

  text3

  31. The author begins his article with Edmund Burke’s words to

  作者在开篇引用EdmundBurke的话是为了

  [A] call on scientists to take some actions. 呼吁科学家采取行动。

  [B] criticize the misguided cause of animal rights. 批评被误导的动物权利事业。

  [C] warn of the doom of biomedical research. 警告生物医学研究的厄运。

  [D] show the triumph of the animal rights movement. 展示动物权利运动的胜利。

  【答案】 A

  【考点】 作者意图题。

  【分析】 从第一段我们可以看到EdmundBurke所说的话的意思就是“一个被误导的事业如果要成功,它唯一需要的是好人无所作为”。然后作者紧接着写道“现在就有这样的一个事业:动物权利保护,他们试图阻止生物医学使用动物”。随后出现关键句“科学家们需要采取行动回应这些鼓吹者”。这实际上就是一个呼吁,所以答案应该是[A]。

  32. Misled people tend to think that using an animal in research is

  被误导的人通常会认为使用动物进行研究是

  [A] cruel but natural. 残忍但是很普通的。

  [B] inhuman and unacceptable. 不人道而且难以接受的。

  [C] inevitable but vicious. 不可避免但是邪恶的。

  [D] pointless and wasteful. 无意义而且是浪费的。

  【答案】 B

  【考点】 推断题。

  【分析】 特征词汇“tend tothink”很明确告诉我们出题人想考查考生能否推断出受误导的人们是怎样看待用动物做试验的。因为文中并没有直接给出答案,这样的题目的解题关键是寻找和题干有关的信息,然后通过推理连接起来这些可能是分散的信息。本题题干中的一个关键词组是“misled people”,首先需要定位,看看“misled people”都有什么看法,然后再做判断。第一段最后一句说“当人们听到医学实验残忍对待动物的指控时,许多人都不明白为什么有人会故意伤害动物”。第二段是一个具体的被误导的祖母般的女士的例子,但是文中只是说她反对用动物来做研究。第三段最后一句非常关键:“对于他们来说,动物实验说得好是浪费,说得不好是残忍”。从以上的分析可以看出,受到误导的人们认为用动物做研究是残酷的、不可思议的。四个选项中,[B]最符合原文。[A]中虽然提到了“cruel”,但是“natural”不对,因为被误导的人们不可能认为那是普通的事情。[C]说的是“不可避免的,但是邪恶的”,也不正确,因为文章中没有提到不可避免这个说法。[D]项说的是“毫无意义,浪费的”,文中没有提到毫无意义这个意思。

  33. The example of the grandmotherly woman is used to show thepublic’s

  老太太的例子被用来说明公众

  [A] discontent with animal research. 对动物研究的不满。

  [B] ignorance about medical science. 对医学的无知。

  [C] indifference to epidemics. 对流行病的冷漠。

  [D] anxiety about animal rights. 对动物权益的忧虑。

  【答案】 B

  【考点】 作者意图题。

  【分析】 这个例子说的是一位老太太向大家散发传单,号召大家不要用任何来自于动物或在动物身上试验过的东西。当问及是否反对使用疫苗时,老太大说,若疫苗也来源于动物,那么就不应使用疫苗,流行病自有科学家们用计算机来解决。可见老太太对科学的无知。而她的这种无知是很普遍的。作者在第二段最后一句话感叹“这些好心人压根儿就不明白”,所以答案为[B]。[A]说的是公众对动物试验的不满。但是,老太太的例子不仅仅是为了说明这一点。这个论据反映的是什么论点呢?从全文来看,作者的目的不是为了写公众有多愤怒,而在于指出公众不满的根源——对医学研究不了解,然后呼唤科学家们针对这个根源采取行动。所以老太太的例子反映的是公众的无知。

  34. The author believes that, in face of the challenge from animalrights advocates, scientists should作者认为,科学家在面临动物权利保护鼓吹者的挑战时,应该

  [A] communicate more with the public. 更多地与公众交流。

  [B] employ hi-tech means in research. 在研究中采用高科技手段。

  [C] feel no shame for their cause. 对自己的事业不感到羞耻。

  [D] strive to develop new cures. 努力开发新的治疗方法。

  【答案】 A

  【考点】 作者态度题。

  【分析】 在解答这类题目的时候,考生应该按照题干关键词去寻找答案线索可能的所在地。本题关键词“challenge from animal rights advocates”,以及“scientistsshould”,解题线索可在最后两段中找出。作者向科学家们提出的建议都是有助于他们与公众更好的交流。答案很明显,是[A]。选项[B]、[C]、[D]貌似合理,其实文中都没有提到。

  35. From the text we learn that Stephen Cooper is

  从本文中我们得知StephenCooper是一位

  [A] a well-known humanist. 著名的人道主义者。

  [B] a medical practitioner. 医疗从业人员。

  [C] an enthusiast in animal rights. 动物权力的狂热者。

  [D] a supporter of animal research. 动物研究的支持者。

  【答案】 D

  【考点】 推断题。

  【分析】 首先根据“StephenCooper”定位到最后一段,我们可以找到线索“Finally, because the ultimate stakeholders are patients... StephenCooper, who has made courageous statements about the value of animal research.。.”。从这句话中,我们知道“Cooper”是个名人,也是病患者,他曾经高度赞扬过动物研究的价值。所以,我们可以推断出他是支持动物研究的。正确答案是选项[D]。

  难句解析:

  1. All that is needed for the triumph of a misguided cause is thatgood people do nothing。

  【结构分析】本句的主句结构是“all… is that…”。“all”的后边接了一个“that”引导的定语从句。第二个“that”引导的是表语从句。这句话的意思理解也有难度,尤其是放在第一句,很多人由于没有能够读懂这一句的意思从而影响了后面的理解。“misguided”的意思是“被误导的”。

  2. Scientists need to respond forcefully to animal rights advocates,whose arguments are confusing the public and thereby threatening advances inhealth knowledge and care.

  【结构分析】句子的主干是“Scientists need to respond to animal rights advocates”,“whose”引导一个定语从句,指代“animalrights advocates”。“are confusing”和“(are)threatening”是并列的谓语。单词“thereby”的意思是“因此,从而, 在那方面”。

  3. For example, a grandmotherly woman staffing an animal rightsbooth at a recent street fair was distributing a brochure that encouragedreaders not to use anything that comes from or is tested in animals—no meat, nofur, no medicines。

  【结构分析】句子的主句是“a woman was distributing a brochure”。“staffing”是现在分词做后置定语;“brochure”后边的“that”引导一个定语从句,修饰“brochure”。“anything”后边的“that”也接一个定语从句,限定修饰“anything”。“staff”在此句中作动词使用,“staff”在用作名词的时候表示“员工,职员”,但是在用作动词的时候,就表示“充当职员”。“booth”实际上指的就是“摊位”或“摊棚”,“fair”就是一次“展销会”或者“集市”。

  4. To those who are unaware that animal research was needed toproduce these treatments, as well as new treatments and vaccines, animalresearch seems wasteful at best and cruel at worst。

  【结构分析】本句的主句结构是“animal research seems wasteful at best and cruel at worst”。“as well as newtreatments and vaccines”此部分是一个状语。“those”的后边跟了一个“who”引导的定语从句。“at best”的意思是“最好的情况下”,“at worst”的意思是“最坏的情况下”。

  全文翻译:

  18世纪政治家埃德蒙·柏克曾说过类似这样的话,“一个被误导的事业如果要成功,它唯一需要的是好人无所作为”。现在就有这样的一个事业,正在寻求终止生物医学的研究,因为它们的一种理论说,动物有禁止自己被用于实验的权利。科学家应该强有力的回应动物权利鼓吹者,因为他们的言论混淆了公众视听,从而威胁到卫生知识和卫生保健的进步。动物权利运动的领导者将矛头指向生物医学研究,原因在于生物医学研究依赖公共资金的资助,并且很少有人懂得医学研究的过程。当人们听到医学实验虐待动物的指控时,许多人都很困惑为什么有人会故意伤害动物。

  例如,在近期的一次集市上,一位老奶奶为动物权利宣传点散发小册子。规劝人们不要使用动物制品和动物实验制品——肉类,毛皮,药物。当她被问到是否反对免疫接种时,她问疫苗是否来自动物实验。当被告知的确如此,她回答道,“那么我不得不说,是的,我反对接种”。当被问到瘟疫爆发怎么办时,她说,“不用担心,科学家会找到一种方法,用计算机来解决问题”。看,这样好心的人根本就不明白为什么做生物医学研究。

  科学家必须把他们的意思传达给公众,并且要有感情的和使用通俗易懂的语言,也就是说,要使用一般人能够明白的语言,而不要使用分子生物学的术语。我们需要说明动物研究与祖母的髋骨置换术、父亲的心脏搭桥手术、婴儿的免疫接种、甚至宠物的针剂注射之间都密切相关。对于那些不知道需要动物研究来做这些治疗以及进行新的治疗和研究新的疫苗的人来说,动物实验说得好是浪费,说得不好是残忍。

  有很多事情可以做。科学家可以进入中学课堂,展示他们的实验结果。他们应该对报刊的读者来信及时做出反应,以防止动物权利的误导言论在毫无质疑的情况下横行,从而获得一副真理的面容。科研机构应该对外开放,让人参观,向人们展示实验室里的动物获得了人道的照顾。最后,因为最终决定因素是病人,医疗研究机构不仅应该积极争取斯蒂芬·库柏这样的名人的支持——他对动物实验的价值勇敢地进行了肯定——而且应该争取所有接受治疗的病人的支持。如果好人无所作为,一群不明真相的公众真的有可能扑灭医学进步的宝贵火种。

  text 4

  1. [B] 在第一段作者指出,自己是一个神经科学家,随后说明了这门科学目前存在的局限性。最后一句指出,作为一个神经学方面的科学家,他觉得有必要谈一下另外一种方法究竟是个什么东西。这里所谓the alternative approach指上文提到的心理疗法(psychotherapy)。根据第二段的论述,心理分析是心理疗法的一个分支。而在第三段,作者将心理分析称为一种宗教,认为它不是科学。

  2. [B] 第四段说明了为什么心理分析是一种宗教而不是一门科学。由本段可以看出,科学与宗教的根本区别在于:科学是能被实验证明真伪的,而宗教则不能。第五、六段接着列举了心理分析与宗教的相似性。

  3. [B] 句中this problem即指上一段最后一句提到的不能被证明真伪。

  4. [A] 意为:神经科学。在第一段,作者称自己为神经学科学家。由此看来,在他心目中,神经科学是一门科学,虽然它现在尚有许多问题解决不了。实际上,敢于承认其局限性,才是研究一门科学应有的态度。而自称什么问题都能解决的心理分析学被作者称为一种宗教。另外,在第二段第四句,作者使用了other psychotherapies这样的措辞,说明作者将心理分析看做是心理疗法的一个分支,二者都不是科学。

  5. [D] 第一段最后一句提出本文旨在说明的主要问题,文章最后一段是文章的结论,其中尤其是该段最后一句。

  part B

  41.【解析】选[B]。本题主要通过句组关系的理解来解答。跳过空格阅读第一段可以看出,本段主要讲述了史前动物的存在(第一句)、部分种类的灭绝(空格前第二句,句中they have no descendants alive now是对extinct一词的解释)以及从化石(rocksas fossils)中我们所能发现的数百万年前就死掉了的动物的精确印记(空格后第一句)和当时的地貌及气候特征(空格后第二句)。由此,我们就看到了空格前后两个句组所叙述内容之间的矛盾和内容上的不足:1)既然已经"灭绝",怎么还能了解有关的这一切呢?说明空格前的句子与其空格所在的句子之间具有转折关系。2)空格后第一句中the rocks指的又是什么石头呢?需要在前有所提及,即正确选项中应包含有rock这个词。能够同时满足这两个条件的只有选项[B]。[A]、[E]、[G]中也提到了rock,但在句际关系上与前后句组不相吻合,故不正确。所以正确答案只能是[B]。

  42.【解析】选[F]。文章第一段说明了化石是我们研究史前动物的主要依据,而本段则主要说明了这些化石的形成。空格后"几乎我们所知的所有化石都是在由于水作用而形成的岩石中保存下来的 (Nearly all of the fossils that we know were preserved in rocksformed by water action) "一句是一个结论性表述,之前应有"水作用形成的岩石(rocks formed by water action)"这一过程的细节描述。[F]的内容正好说明死去动物的尸体是如何被水和泥沙保存下来的,与此恰相吻合,所以选[F]。此题极易错选[G],因为[G]一开始就有how fossils are preserved,后面又出现了impression一词,在用词上出现明显的复现现象。 但是[G]后面讲的是动物遗体上的有机组织"organism"可能转化成的几种形式,这与下文的内容不相吻合,故不选[G]。

  43.【解析】选[E]。本题选择的线索有

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